Sunday, February 26, 2012

18 Ways to Improve Your Body Language

by Henrik Edberg
In this article will explore just a few of many pointers on how to improve your body language. You can learn much more about improving your social life and relationships in my Simplicity course (there is a written guide that is close to 50 pages long + a social skills workbook included in that course) and in The Power of Positivity.
Now, improving your body language can make a big difference in your people skills, attractiveness and general mood.
There is no specific advice on how to use your body language. What you do might be interpreted in several ways, depending on the setting and who you are talking to. You’ll probably want to use your body language differently when talking to your boss compared to when you talk to a girl/guy you’re interested in. These are some common interpretations of body language and often more effective ways to communicate with your body.
First, to change your body language you must be aware of your body language. Notice how you sit, how you stand, how you use you hands and legs, what you do while talking to someone.
You might want to practice in front of a mirror. Yeah, it might seem silly but no one is watching you. This will give you good feedback on how you look to other people and give you an opportunity to practise a bit before going out into the world.
Another tip is to close your eyes and visualize how you would stand and sit to feel confident, open and relaxed or whatever you want to communicate. See yourself move like that version of yourself. Then try it out.
You might also want observe friends, role models, movie stars or other people you think has good body language. Observe what they do and you don’t. Take bits and pieces you like from different people. Try using what you can learn from them.
Some of these tips might seem like you are faking something. But fake it til you make it is a useful way to learn something new. And remember, feelings work backwards too. If you smile a bit more you will feel happier. If you sit up straight you will feel more energetic and in control. If you slow down your movements you’ll feel calmer. Your feelings will actually reinforce your new behaviours and feelings of weirdness will dissipate.
In the beginning easy it’s to exaggerate your body language. You might sit with your legs almost ridiculously far apart or sit up straight in a tense pose all the time. That’s ok. And people aren’t looking as much as you think, they are worrying about their own problems. Just play around a bit, practice and monitor yourself to find a comfortable balance.
1. Don’t cross your arms or legs – You have probably already heard you shouldn’t cross your arms as it might make you seem defensive or guarded. This goes for your legs too. Keep your arms and legs open.
2. Have eye contact, but don’t stare – If there are several people you are talking to, give them all some eye contact to create a better connection and see if they are listening. Keeping too much eye-contact might creep people out. Giving no eye-contact might make you seem insecure. If you are not used to keeping eye-contact it might feel a little hard or scary in the beginning but keep working on it and you’ll get used to it.
3. Don’t be afraid to take up some space – Taking up space by for example sitting or standing with your legs apart a bit signals self-confidence and that you are comfortable in your own skin.
4. Relax your shoulders – When you feel tense it’s easily winds up as tension in your shoulders. They might move up and forward a bit. Try to relax. Try to loosen up by shaking the shoulders a bit and move them back slightly.
5. Nod when they are talking – nod once in a while to signal that you are listening. But don’t overdo it and peck like Woody Woodpecker.
6. Don’t slouch, sit up straight – but in a relaxed way, not in a too tense manner.
7. Lean, but not too much – If you want to show that you are interested in what someone is saying, lean toward the person talking. If you want to show that you’re confident in yourself and relaxed lean back a bit. But don’t lean in too much or you might seem needy and desperate for some approval. Or lean back too much or you might seem arrogant and distant.
8. Smile and laugh – lighten up, don’t take yourself too seriously. Relax a bit, smile and laugh when someone says something funny. People will be a lot more inclined to listen to you if you seem to be a positive person. But don’t be the first to laugh at your own jokes, it makes you seem nervous and needy. Smile when you are introduced to someone but don’t keep a smile plastered on your face, you’ll seem insincere.
9. Don’t touch your face – it might make you seem nervous and can be distracting for the listeners or the people in the conversation.
10. Keep your head up – Don’t keep your eyes on the ground, it might make you seem insecure and a bit lost. Keep your head up straight and your eyes towards the horizon.
11. Slow down a bit – this goes for many things. Walking slower not only makes you seem more calm and confident, it will also make you feel less stressed. If someone addresses you, don’t snap your neck in their direction, turn it a bit more slowly instead.
12. Don’t fidget and try to avoid, phase out or transform fidgety movement and nervous ticks such as shaking your leg or tapping your fingers against the table rapidly. You’ll seem nervous and fidgeting can be a distracting when you try to get something across. Declutter your movements if you are all over the place. Try to relax, slow down and focus your movements.
13. Use your hands more confidently instead of fidgeting with your hands and scratching your face use them to communicate what you are trying to say. Use your hands to describe something or to add weight to a point you are trying to make. But don’t use them to much or it might become distracting. And don’t let your hands flail around, use them with some control.
14. Lower your drink. Don’t hold your drink in front of your chest. In fact, don’t hold anything in front of your heart as it will make you seem guarded and distant. Lower it and hold it beside your leg instead.
15. Realise where you spine ends – many people (including me until recently) might sit or stand with a straight back in a good posture. However, they might think that the spine ends where the neck begins and therefore crane the neck forward in a Montgomery Burns-pose. Your spine ends in the back of your head. Keep you whole spine straight and aligned for better posture.
16. Don’t stand too close –one of the things we learned from Seinfeld is that everybody gets weirded out by a close-talker. Let people have their personal space, don’t invade it.
17. Mirror – Often when you get along with a person, when the two of you get a good connection, you will start to mirror each other unconsciously. That means that you mirror the other person’s body language a bit. To make the connection better you can try a bit of proactive mirroring. If he leans forward, you might lean forward. If she holds her hands on her thighs, you might do the same. But don’t react instantly and don’t mirror every change in body language. Then weirdness will ensue.
18. Keep a good attitude – last but not least, keep a positive, open and relaxed attitude. How you feel will come through in your body language and can make a major difference. For information on how make yourself feel better read 10 ways to change how you feel.
You can change your body language but as all new habits it takes a while. Especially things like keeping you head up might take time to correct if you have spent thousands of days looking at your feet. And if you try and change to many things at once it might become confusing and feel overwhelming.
Take a couple of these body language bits to work on every day for three to four weeks. By then they should have developed into new habits and something you’ll do without even thinking about it. If not, keep on until it sticks. Then take another couple of things you’d like to change and work on them.

Improve Your Self Confidence in 15 Minutes:

Some people have naturally high levels of confidence but everybody can learn to be more confident. Firstly, it's important to get a clear idea of what self confidence really means, otherwise you won't know when you've got it! So, self confidence means:
1. Being calm : For every situation in life you need to run on the appropriate level of emotion. Too much emotional 'leakage' into a experience can spoil the experience. You make great strides towards confidence when you begin to relax in a greater range of situations.
2. Being cool : The second part of self confidence is about being able to relax with uncertainty. To be 'cool' in a situation really means relaxing with not knowing how things will pan out. If you truly tolerate uncertainty, you can do pretty much anything.
3. Not being too concerned with what others think of you. You know when you imagine what some place is going to be like before you go there but when you get there it is totally different to your imagination? That's how reliable your imagination is! Stop trusting your imagination so much. I've long since stopped bothering to imagine what others think of me because so often I've turned out to be wrong.
4. Being specific - where do you want confidence? 'Confidence' is meaningless until you tie it to something specific. You are already confident that you can read these words or can switch a light on and off. So you don't need more confidence everywhere. To get what you want in life you have to establish exactly what you do want. Where do you want confidence in your life? Think about the specific situations now and write them down. You beginning to steer your brain towards confidence.
5. Understanding that what you expect is what you get. Your brain is an organ that needs clear goals to work towards. When a task has been set in your brain it will do everything it can do to bring about the completion of that task. If you've tried to recall someone's name but can't, hours later you'll often find their name pops into your head.
The 'trying to recall' experience set the task or blueprint for your brain's future subconscious behaviour which eventually produced the name for you - when you weren't thinking about it consciously. You can use this natural mechanism to start feeling more confident. But, to ensure you set the right task for your subconscious mind, the next point is vital.
6. Don't task your mind with negatives. Instead of: 'I don't want to screw up' (which sets the task of 'screwing up' for your brain), set the blueprint for what you do want! Your brain doesn't work towards what to do by being told what not to do. And nature has given you a wonderful natural tool to set the right task blueprints with.
7. Use nature's goal-setter: Now you understand how vital it is to set the right task for you brain, you need to know how to do this reliably. Good hypnosis will strongly 'program' the right blueprint in your mind through the use of your imagination. If you powerfully imagine feeling confident and relaxed while in a relaxed hypnotic state it will be hard for your unconscious mind to do anything else. The blueprint for relaxation has been set firmly into your subconscious mind.
3 simple strategies to get you feeling confident quickly:
1. Think specifically of the time/place/situation you want to feel confident in. Remember 'confidence' doesn't mean anything until you attach it to something specific.
2. Focus on words in your mind right now that describe how you do want to be in that time and place. Maybe words such as 'calm', 'relaxed' or 'focused'. Remember your brain works on clear positive instructions.
3. Close your eyes for as long as you like and think about how those words feel. Then, imagine the situation itself and rehearse it in your mind feeling confident and relaxed. This way you set the right blueprint or 'task' for your unconscious mind.
You can repeat this often to make it more effective and use it with as many areas of your life as you need to. If you listen to a hypnotic CD or download that can make the benefits even more powerful. So if you feel like you'd be blessed with less confidence than some other people you can start redressing the balance by using your mind in the right way right now.

Top 60 soft skills

The Workforce Profile
defined about 60 "soft skills", which employers seek. They are applicable to any field of work, according to the study, and are the "personal traits and skills that employers state are the most important when selecting employees for jobs of any type."

1. Math.
2. Safety.
3. Courtesy.
4. Honesty.
5. Grammar.
6. Reliability.
7. Flexibility.
8. Team skills.
9. Eye contact.
10. Cooperation.
11. Adaptability.
12. Follow rules.
13. Self-directed.
14 Good attitude.
15. Writing skills.
16. Driver's license.
17. Dependability.
18. Advanced math.
19. Self-supervising.
20. Good references.
21. Being drug free. 
22. Good attendance.
23. Personal energy.
24. Work experience.
25. Ability to measure.
26. Personal integrity.
27. Good work history.
28. Positive work ethic.
29. Interpersonal skills.
30. Motivational skills.
31. Valuing education. 
32. Personal chemistry.
33. Willingness to learn.
34. Common sense. 
35. Critical thinking skills.
36. Knowledge of fractions.
37. Reporting to work on time.
38. Use of rulers and calculators.
39. Good personal appearance.
40. Wanting to do a good job.
41. Basic spelling and grammar.
42. Reading and comprehension.
43. Ability to follow regulations.
44. Willingness to be accountable.
45. Ability to fill out a job application.
46. Ability to make production quotas.
47. Basic manufacturing skills training.
48. Awareness of how business works.
49. Staying on the job until it is finished.
50. Ability to read and follow instructions.
51. Willingness to work second and third shifts.
52. Caring about seeing the company succeed.
53. Understanding what the world is all about.
54. Ability to listen and document what you have heard.
55. Commitment to continued training and learning.
56. Willingness to take instruction and responsibility.
57. Ability to relate to coworkers in a close environment.
58. Not expecting to become a supervisor in the first six months.
59. Willingness to be a good worker and go beyond the traditional eight-hour day.
60. Communication skills with public, fellow employees, supervisors, and customers.

How many soft skills do you possess?

How to Write an Essay: 10 Easy Steps

Education is not filling a pail, but the lighting of a fire.
-- William Butler Yeats

Why is writing an essay so frustrating?

Learning how to write an essay can be a maddening, exasperating process, but it doesn't have to be. If you know the steps and understand what to do, writing can be easy and even fun.

This site, "How To Write an Essay: 10 Easy Steps," offers a ten-step process that teaches students how to write an essay. Links to the writing steps are found on the left, and additional writing resources are located across the top.

Brief Overview of the 10 Essay Writing Steps

Below are brief summaries of each of the ten steps to writing an essay. Select the links for more info on any particular step, or use the blue navigation bar on the left to proceed through the writing steps. How To Write an Essay can be viewed sequentially, as if going through ten sequential steps in an essay writing process, or can be explored by individual topic.
1. Research: Begin the essay writing process by researching your topic, making yourself an expert. Utilize the internet, the academic databases, and the library. Take notes and immerse yourself in the words of great thinkers.
2. Analysis: Now that you have a good knowledge base, start analyzing the arguments of the essays you're reading. Clearly define the claims, write out the reasons, the evidence. Look for weaknesses of logic, and also strengths. Learning how to write an essay begins by learning how to analyze essays written by others.
3. Brainstorming: Your essay will require insight of your own, genuine essay-writing brilliance. Ask yourself a dozen questions and answer them. Meditate with a pen in your hand. Take walks and think and think until you come up with original insights to write about.
4. Thesis: Pick your best idea and pin it down in a clear assertion that you can write your entire essay around. Your thesis is your main point, summed up in a concise sentence that lets the reader know where you're going, and why. It's practically impossible to write a good essay without a clear thesis.
5. Outline: Sketch out your essay before straightway writing it out. Use one-line sentences to describe paragraphs, and bullet points to describe what each paragraph will contain. Play with the essay's order. Map out the structure of your argument, and make sure each paragraph is unified.
6. Introduction: Now sit down and write the essay. The introduction should grab the reader's attention, set up the issue, and lead in to your thesis. Your intro is merely a buildup of the issue, a stage of bringing your reader into the essay's argument.
(Note: The title and first paragraph are probably the most important elements in your essay. This is an essay-writing point that doesn't always sink in within the context of the classroom. In the first paragraph you either hook the reader's interest or lose it. Of course your teacher, who's getting paid to teach you how to write an essay, will read the essay you've written regardless, but in the real world, readers make up their minds about whether or not to read your essay by glancing at the title alone.)
7. Paragraphs: Each individual paragraph should be focused on a single idea that supports your thesis. Begin paragraphs with topic sentences, support assertions with evidence, and expound your ideas in the clearest, most sensible way you can. Speak to your reader as if he or she were sitting in front of you. In other words, instead of writing the essay, try talking the essay.
8. Conclusion: Gracefully exit your essay by making a quick wrap-up sentence, and then end on some memorable thought, perhaps a quotation, or an interesting twist of logic, or some call to action. Is there something you want the reader to walk away and do? Let him or her know exactly what.
9. MLA Style: Format your essay according to the correct guidelines for citation. All borrowed ideas and quotations should be correctly cited in the body of your text, followed up with a Works Cited (references) page listing the details of your sources.
10. Language: You're not done writing your essay until you've polished your language by correcting the grammar, making sentences flow, incoporating rhythm, emphasis, adjusting the formality, giving it a level-headed tone, and making other intuitive edits. Proofread until it reads just how you want it to sound. Writing an essay can be tedious, but you don't want to bungle the hours of conceptual work you've put into writing your essay by leaving a few slippy misppallings and pourly wordedd phrazies..

Saturday, February 25, 2012

15 Best Time Management Tips

15 Best Time Management Tips

Here are 15 practical time management tips to help you get started...

1. Write things down
A common time management mistake is to try to use your memory to keep track of too many details leading to information overload. Using a to-do list to write things down is a great way to take control of your projects and tasks and keep yourself organized.
2. Prioritize your list
Prioritizing your to-do list helps you focus and spend more of your time on the things that really matter to you. Rate your tasks into categories using the ABCD prioritization system described in the time management course.
3. Plan your week
Spend some time at the beginning of each week to plan your schedule. Taking the extra time to do this will help increase your productivity and balance your important long-term projects with your more urgent tasks. All you need is fifteen to thirty minutes each week for your planning session.
4. Carry a notebook
You never know when you are going to have a great idea or brilliant insight. Carry a small notebook with you wherever you go so you can capture your thoughts. If you wait too long to write them down you could forget. Another option is to use a digital recorder.
5. Learn to say no
Many people become overloaded with too much work because they overcommit; they say yes when they really should be saying no. Learn to say no to low priority requests and you will free up time to spend on things that are more important.
6. Think before acting
How many times have you said yes to something you later regretted? Before committing to a new task, stop to think about it before you give your answer. This will prevent you from taking on too much work.
7. Continuously improve yourself
Make time in your schedule to learn new things and develop your natural talents and abilities. For example, you could take a class, attend a training program, or read a book. Continuously improving your knowledge and skills increases your marketability, can help boost your career, and is the most reliable path to financial independence.
8. Think about what you are giving up to do your regular activities
It is a good idea to evaluate regularly how you are spending your time. In some cases, the best thing you can do is to stop doing an activity that is no longer serving you so you can spend the time doing something more valuable. Consider what you are giving up in order to maintain your current activities.
9. Use a time management system
Using a time management system can help you keep track of everything that you need to do, organize and prioritize your work, and develop sound plans to complete it. An integrated system is like glue that holds all the best time management practices together.
10. Identify bad habits
Make a list of bad habits that are stealing your time, sabotaging your goals, and blocking your success. After you do, work on them one at a time and systematically eliminate them from your life. Remember that the easiest way to eliminate a bad habit, it to replace it with a better habit.
11. Don’t do other people’s work
Are you in the habit of doing other people’s work because or a ‘hero’ mentality? Doing this takes up time that you may not have. Instead, focus on your own projects and goals, learn to delegate effectively, and teach others how to do their own work.
12. Keep a goal journal
Schedule time to set and evaluate your goals. Start a journal and write down your progress for each goal. Go through your goal journal each week to make sure you are on the right track.
Keeping a journal on your computer has never been easier!
13. Don’t be a perfectionist
Some tasks don’t require your best effort. Sending a short email to a colleague, for example, shouldn’t take any more than a few minutes. Learn to distinguish between tasks that deserve to be done excellently and tasks that just need to be done.
14. Beware of “filler” tasks
When you have a to-do list filled with important tasks, be careful not to get distracted by “filler” tasks. Things such as organizing your bookcase or filing papers can wait until you tackle the items that have the highest priority.
15. Avoid “efficiency traps”
Being efficient doesn’t necessarily mean that you are being productive. Avoid taking on tasks that you can do with efficiency that don’t need to be done at all. Just because you are busy and getting things done doesn’t mean you are actually accomplishing anything significant.

Seven Personal Qualities Found In A Good Leader

Seven Personal Qualities Found In A Good Leader:
  1. A good leader has an exemplary character. It is of utmost importance that a leader is trustworthy to lead others. A leader needs to be trusted and be known to live their life with honestly and integrity. A good leader “walks the talk” and in doing so earns the right to have responsibility for others. True authority is born from respect for the good character and trustworthiness of the person who leads.
  2. A good leader is enthusiastic about their work or cause and also about their role as leader. People will respond more openly to a person of passion and dedication. Leaders need to be able to be a source of inspiration, and be a motivator towards the required action or cause. Although the responsibilities and roles of a leader may be different, the leader needs to be seen to be part of the team working towards the goal. This kind of leader will not be afraid to roll up their sleeves and get dirty.
  3. A good leader is confident. In order to lead and set direction a leader needs to appear confident as a person and in the leadership role. Such a person inspires confidence in others and draws out the trust and best efforts of the team to complete the task well. A leader who conveys confidence towards the proposed objective inspires the best effort from team members.
  4. A leader also needs to function in an orderly and purposeful manner in situations of uncertainty. People look to the leader during times of uncertainty and unfamiliarity and find reassurance and security when the leader portrays confidence and a positive demeanor.
  5. Good leaders are tolerant of ambiguity and remain calm, composed and steadfast to the main purpose. Storms, emotions, and crises come and go and a good leader takes these as part of the journey and keeps a cool head.
  6. A good leader as well as keeping the main goal in focus is able to think analytically. Not only does a good leader view a situation as a whole, but is able to break it down into sub parts for closer inspection. Not only is the goal in view but a good leader can break it down into manageable steps and make progress towards it.
  7. A good leader is committed to excellence. Second best does not lead to success. The good leader not only maintains high standards, but also is proactive in raising the bar in order to achieve excellence in all areas.
These seven personal characteristics are foundational to good leadership. Some characteristics may be more naturally present in the personality of a leader. However, each of these characteristics can also be developed and strengthened. A good leader whether they naturally possess these qualities or not, will be diligent to consistently develop and strengthen them in their leadership role.

Seven Rules of Motivation

Seven Rules of Motivation

#1 Set a major goal, but follow a path. The path has mini goals that go in many directions. When you learn to succeed at mini goals, you will be motivated to challenge grand goals.
#2 Finish what you start. A half finished project is of no use to anyone. Quitting is a habit. Develop the habit of finishing self-motivated projects.
#3 Socialize with others of similar interest. Mutual support is motivating. We will develop the attitudes of our five best friends. If they are losers, we will be a loser. If they are winners, we will be a winner. To be a cowboy we must associate with cowboys.
#4 Learn how to learn. Dependency on others for knowledge supports the habit of procrastination. Man has the ability to learn without instructors. In fact, when we learn the art of self-education we will find, if not create, opportunity to find success beyond our wildest dreams.
#5 Harmonize natural talent with interest that motivates. Natural talent creates motivation, motivation creates persistence and persistence gets the job done.
#6 Increase knowledge of subjects that inspires. The more we know about a subject, the more we want to learn about it. A self-propelled upward spiral develops.
#7 Take risk. Failure and bouncing back are elements of motivation. Failure is a learning tool. No one has ever succeeded at anything worthwhile without a string of failures.

Friday, February 24, 2012

MIT researchers help improve plant efficiency

MIT researchers help improve plant efficiency

Massachusetts, US- Research by a team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has provided insights into how condensation forms on a surface.
According to the group, the results could significantly increase the efficiency of the next generation of power and desalination plants.
Typically, on a condensing surface, droplets grow larger while adhering to the material through surface tension. When they are large enough, gravity overcomes the surface tension and droplets rain down into a container.
MIT mechanical engineering graduate student, Nenad Miljkovic explained that there are ways to make droplets fall from a surface at smaller sizes, enabling the resulting transfer of heat to be much more efficient.
One mechanism is a surface pattern that encourages adjacent droplets to merge together. As they do so, energy is released, which causes a recoil from the surface.
By incorporating measurements of droplet growth rates and heat transfer into computer models, the MIT team was able to compare a variety of approaches to developing a surface pattern.
The researchers found one promising option was to create a forest of pillars on a surface at nanoscale. They reported that droplets tended to sit on top of the pillars while only locally wetting the surface, minimising the area of contact and facilitating easier release.

“We showed that our surfaces improved heat transfer by up to 71% [compared to flat, non-wetting surfaces currently used only in high-efficiency condenser systems] if you tailor them properly,” said Miljkovic.
The enhanced efficiency could improve the rate of water production in plants that produce drinking water from seawater, or in solar-power systems.
A similar system could improve heat removal in computer chips, which is often based on internal evaporation and recondensation of a heat-transfer liquid through a device called a heat pipe.

MIT is now extending its work to find ways of manufacturing these surfaces rapidly and cheaply on an industrial scale.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Why Chinese students come out at the top while Indians hit the bottom!

Why Chinese students come out at the top while Indians hit the bottom!

ARINDAM CHAUDHURI | Issue Dated: February 3, 2012, New Delhi

A handful of weeks back, in the ACER PISA test – the OECD’s annual global assessment of students’ skills (for South and South East Asia) – India came second from the bottom defeating Kyrgyzstan while China topped the list. This acts as the final nail in the coffin of India’s dented education system. In spite of arrays of pan-Indian educational programs, India still has not been able to make education inclusive for all. On the contrary, China since the last four decades has been rolling out ambitious plans to revamp their education system, which is evident from the way they are storming into global rankings.

Chinese education is a very consistent blend of Confucian theories and modern concepts mixed with Chinese national developmental policies. Chinese education, unlike ours, focuses on both socio-cultural and political aspects of the nation. The current Chinese education system extends from the guidelines that Premier Zhou Enlai gave in 1974; guidelines that are popularly known as s� g� xi�n d�i hu� or the ‘Four Modernizations’. And what are these? The education system in China revolves around agriculture, industry, technology and defense – that, as per the Chinese, are pivotal for the country’s development. China today has installed key schools meant for highly academically inclined students. China has adopted a policy of providing nine-year compulsory education to all with a special emphasis on vocational training and higher education. This nine year of compulsory education makes a child conversant with mathematics, science and Chinese literature. Interestingly, even rural students undergo similar training; and by the end of the ninth year of education, the rural student is at par with his urban counterpart. Contrast this with India, where a high-school student is unable to solve a basic mathematical problem or frame a sentence on his own. Moreover, Indian rural schools are mired with problems of infrastructure and above all suffer largely from the curse of teachers’ absenteeism. On an average, more than 30 per cent of teachers are found absent in rural schools. In order to curb this menace, China pays their teachers based on student scores. Thus, a large component of teachers’ salaries depends on their students’ performance. Yet, there’s a balance. The better the school (based on the students’ score) more is the fees they charge, thus increasing competition and quality both at the same time. Back in 2007, an article published in BBC stated, “China is now the largest higher education system in the world: it awards more university degrees than the US and India combined... The rate of university expansion has been beyond anything [that] anyone in the West can easily imagine.”

Millions of Chinese students are now abandoning colleges and are opting for vocational schools. These vocational schools are backed up by Chinese industrialists and known for producing ready-for-job candidates. In 2007, China allocated 14 billion yuan to be spent on vocational schools over the span of four years. Vocational education in China, unlike India, is not just confined to manufacturing but encompasses sectors like information technology, tourism and medicine. Vocational training was introduced in China so that educated people wouldn’t have to face the brunt of unemployment and relevant skill development is achieved so that qualified individuals have guaranteed jobs. The government has also introduced projects like the State Project 211, State Project 895 and State Project 111, where special importance is given to top top 100 higher education institutes to enhance the quality of their graduates. The Chinese ministry of education is also striving to meet global standards by inviting the world’s best researchers to work in these institutions, thus attempting to benchmark internationally. India too stressed on higher education – particularly in the tertiary sector – but faced with strong impediments in terms of funding, India is falling in terms of percentage of overall spending. The private sector too plays an important role in India in assuaging the demand-supply gap.

Back in 2003, China invited foreign universities to set up campuses; India passed a similar bill seven years later. Foreign universities have not only brought in global teaching pedagogies into China but have also elevated the level of education in the country. Consequently, China is doing exceedingly well in global rankings of late! In 2009, the Paris based Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, representing 34 countries, released its Program for International Student Assessment, where the Shanghai region outperformed everyone else to be the top performer in all academic categories! According to OECD, China’s success is more because of its special emphasis on elite schools (key schools) where one is expected to shine par excellence. In 2003, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranking showed that there were 23 Chinese universities amongst 35 featured in total. The top 3 Chinese universities that entered the top 200 worldwide university ranking included National Taiwan University, Chinese University of Hong Kong and Tsinghua University. There are more on the list of the top 500, including institutes likes Beihang University (formerly known as Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics) and Beijing Normal University, which entered the ranking for the first time.

In comparison, India produced a big blank sheet! Not only does India not figure anywhere in ARWU, but it is also invisible in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings. India is way behind China in terms of even the number of universities. There are 545 universities in India compared to 2,236 in China. Even in medical colleges, there are about 630 colleges in China compared to 251 in India. The total enrollment in Indian universities is only 4.7 million compared to 11 million in China. The situation was similar some years back too when, in 2004-05, India churned out 464,743 engineering graduates while China produced 600,000 for the same year.

China has meticulously planned its education system development in a top-down format – from system development to grassroots level institutional execution. The system is mostly centrally controlled by the Ministry of Education at the top and at the lower levels by the provincial and municipal authorities. This policy led to huge increase in enrollment. The tertiary level students had increased from 8.5 million in 1998 to 23 million in 2006. During the same period the percentage of students in the age group of 18-23 studying in universities rose from 9.8 per cent to 21 per cent – the manifold increase has been stronger in arts and humanities than otherwise. The main objective behind China’s education policy is to sustain the rapid growth that its economy has been currently experiencing. The Ministry of Education (MoE) is also trying to bring the aged segment (who are above the age of 50) under the umbrella of literacy. This has been the case since almost a decade. For example, even in 2003, there were more than 2000 higher educational institutes (HEI) including 607 specially allotted ones for adults. The fresh enrolments in HEIs was recorded at 3,200,000 and total enrolment stood at 9,033,000. A massive 200,000 or 40.4 per cent of postgraduate students were admitted to research institutes, of which 38,000 or 19 per cent went for Ph.D programs and 164,000 or 81 per cent for Master’s degree programs.

As I said earlier, the people who are unable to pursue higher education are provided with the opportunity of vocational training courses at numerous centers across the counties and towns. The secondary schools too have set up vocational training centers to accommodate people who are left out of the system of higher education. There were 15,590,000 students enrolled in secondary vocational schools, an increase of 2,747,000 from 2000 at the rate of 3.95 per cent per year. The Chinese have not only emphasized on ‘scale and speed’ but also on ‘quality and efficacy’ of their education system – especially in trying to penetrate their education policies deep into China’s rural hinterland and county levels.

The broad objectives of India’s education system are similar – a Constitutional framework is also in place to provide compulsory education to all – but on account of poor implementation, the provisions have only been on paper. According to National Alliance for the Fundamental Right to Education (NAFRE), in about 600,000 villages, the education imparted is only basic, literacy instruction by semi educated (often not even that) teachers! In higher education, 80 per cent of Indian students are enrolled in science, commerce, humanities and social sciences and only 20 per cent are enrolled in professional programs. To reconcile that, India’s Prime Minister in 2007 announced the setting up of 8 new IITs, 7 new IIMs, 20 new Indian Institute of Information Technology, and 5 new Indian Institute of Science Education; with the purpose of churning out greater number of people with professional degrees. Of these, many are still to even see their foundation stone being laid. Aping China, India did set up numerous vocational schools. Speaking of numbers, India has only 5,100 ITIs and 1,745 polytechnics (mostly dysfunctional) compared to China’s 500,000 VETs (Vocational Education and Training institutions). That’s not all, India’s vocational programs provide only 171 skills compared to over 1500 that the developed countries provide. India is still trying to de-complicate the course structure that is currently too complicated, thanks to 17 ministries that handle VETs and clearly without any co-ordination!! What’s worse, even the service-providers of this system are not fully equipped as merely 40 per cent of the instructors have undergone a full instructor-training course.

A quick glance through the objectives/mission mentioned on the Ministry of Education website of both the nations would be enough to gauge the comprehensiveness of their policies. China’s education missions are not only comprehensive but inclusive as well. Not only is India far behind in the number of quality institutions, but India is decades behind in framing the right kind of policies. China is turning its population into this huge advantage, while we are ruining this massive possibility. Given the burgeoning population that we have, it is an imperative to educate everyone – or else the dividends would soon turn into a liability, if they’ve not already turned into one!

Wednesday, February 22, 2012


Each paper contains 65 questions carrying 100 marks

Question Paper Pattern in papers bearing the codes AE, AG, AR, BT, CE, CH, CS, CY, EC, EE, IN, MA, ME, MN, MT, PH, PI and TF

Question Paper Pattern in paper bearing the code GG
Question Paper Pattern in SECTION A of paper bearing the code XE
Question Paper Pattern in SECTIONS B to G of paper bearing the code XE
Question Paper Pattern in SECTION H of paper bearing the code XL
Question Paper Pattern in SECTIONS I to L of paper bearing the code XL
(Refer Exam Structure for GATE papers, codes and Syllabi)

Question Papers bearing the codes : AE, AG, AR, BT, CE, CH, CS, CY, EC, EE, IN, MA, ME, MN, MT, PH, PI and TF
Paper Code
Patterns of Question papers
Negative Marks for wrong Answer
Q.1 to Q.25: Will carry one mark each (sub-total 25 marks).
1/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.26 to Q.55: Will carry two marks each (sub-total 60 marks)
2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.48 through Q.51 (2 pairs) will be common data questions. Each question will carry two marks
2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Question pairs (Q.52, Q.53) and (Q.54, Q.55) will be linked answer questions.
The answer to the second question of the last two pairs will depend on the answer to the first question of the pair.
If the first question in the linked pair is wrongly answered or is un-attempted, then the answer to the second question in the pair will not be evaluated. Each question will carry two marks
There will be negative marks only for wrong answer to the first question of the linked answer question pair i.e. for Q.52 and Q.54, 2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer. There is no negative marking for Q.53 and Q.55.
Q.56 to Q.60 : From General Aptitude (GA) will carry one mark each (sub-total 5 marks).
1/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.61 to Q.65 : From GA will carry two marks each (sub-total 10 marks)
2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
All the papers bearing the codes AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, IN, ME, MN, MT, PI and TF will contain few questions on Engineering Mathematics carrying 15 marks.
GG Paper : (Geology & Geophysics) Paper
Part A common for all candidates
(Q.1 to Q.25) carrying one mark each (sub-total 25 marks).
1/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
1  & 2
Part B will contain two sections :Section 1 (Geology) and Section 2 (Geophysics). Candidates will have to attempt questions either Section 1 or Section 2.
In this section,
Q.26 to Q.55 (30 questions) will carry two marks each(sub-total 60 marks).
2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.48 to Q.51 (2 pairs) will be common data questions. Each question will carry two marks.
2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Question pairs (Q.52, Q.53) and (Q.54, Q.55) will be linked answer questions. The answer to the second question in these two pairs will depend on the answer to the first question of the pair. If the first question in the linked pair is wrongly answered or is un-attempted, then the answer to the second question in the pair will not be evaluated
There will be negative marks only for wrong answer to the first question of the linked answer question pair i.e. for Q.52 and Q.54, 2/3mark will be deducted for each wrong answer. There is no negative marking for Q.53 and Q.55.
General Aptitude (GA)
Q.56 to Q.60: Will carry one mark each (sub-total 5 marks).
1/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.61 to Q.65: Will carry two marks each (sub-total 10 marks)
2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.

XE Paper - Section A (Engineering Mathematics)
Section A
in XE paper
There will be 11 questions carrying 15 marks in XE Section A (Engineering Mathematics) paper
Q.1 to Q.7 (4 questions) will carry one mark each (sub-total 7 marks).
1/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.8 to Q.11 (4 questions) will carry two marks each (sub-total 8 marks)
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
XE section papers (Sections B through G) will contain 22 questions carrying 35 marks
B, C, D, E, F & G
 in  XE papers
 Q.1 to Q.9 (9 questions) will carry one mark each (sub-total 9 marks)
1/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.10 to Q.22 (13 questions) will carry two marks each(sub-total 26 marks).
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.17 through Q.20 (2 pairs) will be common data based questions. Each will carry two marks
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.21, Q.22 will be linked answer questions
The answer to the second question of the pair of linked question will depend on the answer to the first question of the pair. If the first question in the linked pair is wrongly answered or is un-attempted, then the answer to the second question in the pair will not be evaluated.  Each will carry two marks
 For Q.21, 2/3 mark will be deducted for wrong answer. There will be no negative mark for Q.22.

XE Paper - General Aptitude (GA)
General Aptitude
There will be 10 questions carrying 15 marks in General Aptitude
Q.1 to Q.5 (5 questions) will carry one mark each (sub-total 5 marks).
1/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.6 to Q.10 (5 questions) will carry two marks each (sub-total 10 marks)
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
XL Paper Section H (Chemistry)
Section H
in XL paper
There will be 15 questions carrying 25 marks in XL Section H paper
Q.1 to Q.5 (5 questions) will carry one mark each (sub-total 5 marks).
1/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.6 to Q.15 (10 questions) will carry two marks each (sub-total 20 marks)
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
(Q.12, Q.13) will be common data questions Each question will carry two marks each
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Question pair (Q.14, Q.15) will have linked answer questionEach question will carry two marks each There will be negative marks only for wrong answer to the first question of the linked answer question pair.
For Q.14, mark will be deducted for wrong answer. There is no negative mark for Q.15.
XL Paper Sections (Sections I through M)
I, J, K and L  
in XL paper
XL section papers (Sections I through L) will contain 20 questions carrying 30 marks
Q.1 to Q.10 (10 questions) will carry one mark each (sub-total 10 marks).
1/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.11 to Q.20 (10 questions) will carry two marks each (sub-total 20 marks).
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.

XL Paper - General Aptitude (GA)
General Aptitude
There will be 10 questions carrying 15 marks in General Aptitude
Q.1 to Q.5 (5 questions) will carry one mark each (sub-total 5 marks).
1/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
Q.6 to Q.10 (5 questions) will carry two marks each (sub-total 10 marks)
2/3  mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.

Multiple choice questions in all papers and sections will contain four answers, of which only one is correct. The types of questions in a paper may be based on following logic:
(i) Recall:
These are based on facts, principles, formulae or laws of the discipline. The candidate is expected to be able to obtain the answer either from his/her memory of the subject or at most from a one-line computation.
Q. During machining maximum heat is produced

(A) in flank face       (B) in rake face
(C) in shear zone     (D) due to friction between chip and tool.
(ii) Comprehension:
 These questions will test the candidate's understanding of the basics of his/her field, by requiring him/her to draw simple conclusions from fundamental ideas.
Q. A DC motor requires a starter in order

(A) to develop a starting torque
(B) to compensate for auxiliary field ampere turns
(C) to limit armature current at starting
(D) to provide regenerative braking
(iii) Application: In these questions, the candidate is expected to apply his/her knowledge either through computation or by logical reasoning.
Q. The sequent depth ratio of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 16.48. The Froude number at the beginning of the jump is:
(A)  10.0  (B) 5.0
(C)  12.0  (D) 8.0
(iv) Analysis and Synthesis:
These can be linked questions, where the answer to the first question of the pair is required in order to answer its successor. Or these can be common data questions, in which two questions share the same data but can be solved independently of one another.

Common data questions

Multiple questions may be linked to a common data problem, passage and the like. Two or three questions can be formed from the given common data problem. Each question is independent and its solution obtainable from the above problem data/passage directly. (Answer of the previous question is not required to solve the next question). Each question under this group will carry two marks.
Common Data, for instance, Questions 48 and 49 in main paper:
Let X and Y be jointly distributed random variables such that the conditional distribution of Y, given X=x, is uniform on the interval (x-1,x+1). Suppose E(X)=1 and Var(X)= 5/3

First question using common data:
Q.48 The mean of the random variable Y is
(A) 1/2  (B) 1   (C) 3/2       (D) 2
Second question using common data:
Q.49 The variance of the random variable Y is
(A) 1/2       (B) 2/3       (C) 1       (D) 2

Linked answer questions:

These questions are of problem solving type. A problem statement is followed by two questions based on the problem statement. The two questions are designed such that the solution to the second question depends upon the answer to the first one. In other words, the first answer is an intermediate step in working out the second answer. Each question in such linked answer questions will carry two marks.
Statement for Linked Answer Questions, for instance, for Questions 52 and 53 in Main Paper:
The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback control system is given by

First question of the pair:
Q.52 The value of K which will cause sustained oscillations in the closed loop system is

Second question of the pair:
Q.53 The frequency of sustained oscillations is

The questions based on the above four logics may be a mix of single stand alone statement / phrase / data type questions, combination of option codes type questions or match items types questions